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Products for grant RA-285526-22

RA-285526-22
Long-Term Research Fellowships at the American Overseas Research Centers
Katie Jost, CAORC

Grant details: https://apps.neh.gov/publicquery/main.aspx?f=1&gn=RA-285526-22

National Liberation and Sovereign Technology: The Contribution of Slaheddine el-Amami (Article)
Title: National Liberation and Sovereign Technology: The Contribution of Slaheddine el-Amami
Author: Max Ajl
Abstract: From the Chinese Revolution to the Algerian War of Independence, people engaged in struggles for decolonization, liberation, and sovereignty have fought to reclaim their land and have been willing to do anything to get it. Frantz Fanon explored the roles that land, non-human nature, agriculture, and people living in the countryside play in social change, conflict, development, liberation, revolution and reaction. Marxist thought and social science have crystallized these issues into several “questions,” as this broad sweep of concerns moved through a series of steps towards the world-churning struggles for decolonization and national liberation. The “classical” ones—and what is classical is, of course, fraught with power dynamics—were the following. First, the question of politics: How would European radicals relate to large peasant populations in their countries? Second, the questions of labor and society: How would capitalism’s growth in the countryside impact the future of the peasant class? Was it fated to vanish? Or would it endure? Then, with the victory of the Bolshevik Revolution, a third question emerged: What was the role of the countryside in national economic development, specifically as it related to capital accumulation towards industrialization?1
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://magazine.scienceforthepeople.org/vol25-1-the-soil-and-worker/national-liberation-and-sovereign-technology/
Access Model: Open access
Format: Magazine
Periodical Title: Science for the People Magazine
Publisher: Science for the People

A Georgrapher's Field Notes: Exploring Connections between Mexico and Senegal (Blog Post)
Title: A Georgrapher's Field Notes: Exploring Connections between Mexico and Senegal
Author: Karen Barton
Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to underscore how the CAORC-NEH Senior Fellowship to Senegal opened up numerous doors for me - both figuratively and literally - as both a scholar and field researcher, many of them unanticipated. Thanks to support from CAORC, in 2018 I was able to conduct four months of intensive fieldwork among communities in Casamance researching Senegal’s Joola shipwreck, in which 1,863 people died aboard a passenger ferry bound for Dakar when it sailed into a storm. I’m especially proud that my book, “Africa’s Joola Shipwreck: Causes and Consequences of a Humanitarian Disaster” was released in 2021, an accomplishment that would not have been possible without the support of CAORC - NEH. This Fall, the National Association of the Families of the Victims of the Joola (ANFV) awarded me the Knight of the Order of the Joola for my bringing Senegal’s story to an American audience, their highest honor. While I am grateful for this important accolade, I also believe there remains significant work ahead as we launch a second, collaborative book highlighting the 20th anniversary of the wreck, post-disaster recovery, and community resilience. We will return to Casamance, Senegal in 2022 to work on this project, while also commencing a new study featuring the cultural values of baobab
Date: 11/01/2021
Primary URL: http://www.caorc.org/post/a-geographer-s-field-notes-exploring-connections-between-mexico-and-senegal
Blog Title: CAORC Field Notes
Website: www.caorc.org

Enslaved Muslim Sufi Saints in the Nineteenth-Century Sahara: The Life of Bilal Ould Mahmoud (Article)
Title: Enslaved Muslim Sufi Saints in the Nineteenth-Century Sahara: The Life of Bilal Ould Mahmoud
Author: Khaled Esseissah
Abstract: This article centers on the life of Bilal Ould Mahmoud, an enslaved man who became a spiritual authority in the nineteenth-century Sahara. It examines how Bilal's piety allowed him to rise to prominence in a hierarchical context that subjugated him to an inferior position. Yet what makes him so fascinating to study is his ability to achieve the highest station as a Sufi saint without being attached to a Sufi order. Using Bilal's case, this article makes two important contributions to the historiographies of Sufism and slavery. First, it brings fresh perspectives to the studies of Sufism outside of ṭarīqa (Sufi orders). Second, it contributes to the studies of Saharan slavery by exploring enslaved Muslims’ experiences beyond the practice of illicit magic, and also as part of how they exercised their saintly authority as empowered agents. In the process, it analyzes the interplay among Islam, race, and slavery in the nineteenth-century Sahara.
Year: 2021
Primary URL: http://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-african-history/article/abs/enslaved-muslim-sufi-saints-in-the-nineteenthcentury-sahara-the-life-of-bilal-ould-mahmoud/1B987B34E212D5EA75A99E6F83CCBD9D
Access Model: Subscription only
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Journal of African History
Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Ravana’s Kingdom: The Ramayana and Sri Lankan History from Below (Book)
Title: Ravana’s Kingdom: The Ramayana and Sri Lankan History from Below
Author: Justin Henry
Abstract: Ravana, the demon-king antagonist from the Ramayana, the ancient Hindu epic poem, has become an unlikely cultural hero among Sinhala Buddhists over the past decade. In Ravana's Kingdom, Justin W. Henry delves into the historical literary reception of the epic in Sri Lanka, charting the adaptions of its themes and characters from the 14th century onwards, as many Sri Lankan Hindus and Buddhists developed a sympathetic impression of Ravana's character, and through the contemporary Ravana revival, which has resulted in the development of an alternative mythological history, depicting Ravana as king of the Sri Lanka's indigenous inhabitants, a formative figure of civilizational antiquity, and the direct ancestor of the Sinhala Buddhist people. Henry offers a careful study of the literary history of the Ramayana in Sri Lanka, employing numerous sources and archives that have until now received little to no scholarly attention, as well as the 21st century revision of a narrative of the Sri Lankan people-a narrative incubated by the general public online, facilitated by social media and by the speed of travel of information in the digital age. Ravana's Kingdom offers a glimpse into a centuries-old, living Ramayana tradition among Hindus and Buddhists in Sri Lanka-a case study of the myth-making process in the digital age.
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://global.oup.com/academic/product/ravanas-kingdom-9780197636305?cc=us&lang=en&
Access Model: Purchase only
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Type: Single author monograph
ISBN: 9780197636305
Copy sent to NEH?: No

Experiencing Locally, Thinking Globally: Smallpox Vaccination as a Framework for Understanding the Global Early Modern (Article)
Title: Experiencing Locally, Thinking Globally: Smallpox Vaccination as a Framework for Understanding the Global Early Modern
Author: Allyson Poska
Abstract: At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Spanish Crown extended the use of cowpox as a vaccine against smallpox to its subjects around the globe. As the first global public health initiative, the smallpox vaccination campaign presents a prime opportunity to reconsider the global early modern through an analysis of the relationship between the global imperial structures through which the vaccine was conveyed and the varied local responses to vaccination. In fact, the vaccination campaign prompted a complex and dynamic interchange between the global and the local over issues as diverse as the relationship between subject and king, hierarchies of medical knowledge and authority, and expectations about maternity and motherhood.
Year: 2021
Primary URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/714890?journalCode=mp
Access Model: Subscription only
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Modern Philology
Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Researching Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Blog Post)
Title: Researching Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Author: Allyson Poska
Abstract: I began the project out of which my JWH article “An Operation More Appropriate for Women”: The Gendering of Smallpox Vaccination in the Spanish Empire” grew before COVID-19 even existed, thinking that the extension of the smallpox vaccine with its global reach would provide insights into race and gender tensions in the waning years of the Spanish Empire. While that is still the focus of my research, with the advent of the pandemic and the subsequent roll out of public health measures, including vaccines, to counter the virus, I have found myself increasingly engaged with the current debates over those measures. Although I am always attentive to the differences between the world that I study and the world in which I live, the reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine have given me useful insight into how public health measures have dredged up many of the same concerns over women’s bodies and government intervention that hindered the extension of first inoculation and then vaccination against smallpox more than two hundred years ago.
Date: 03/12/2022
Primary URL: http://jwomenshistory.org/jwh-author-allyson-poska/
Blog Title: Author's Blog
Website: https://jwomenshistory.org/

Narrating a Revolutionary Life Through Song: Personal, Political, and Musical Choices in Making Singing A Great Dream (Book Section)
Title: Narrating a Revolutionary Life Through Song: Personal, Political, and Musical Choices in Making Singing A Great Dream
Author: Bhakta Syangtan
Author: Anna Stirr
Editor: Christopher Ballengee
Abstract: Music, Sound, and Documentary Film in the Global South, edited by Christopher L. Ballengee, represents an important step toward thinking about the production and analysis of the soundscapes of documentary film, all while exploring a range of social, cultural, technological, and theoretical questions relevant to current trends in Global South studies. Written by a diverse set of authors, including filmmakers, academics, and cultural critics, the ten essays in this book provide fresh evaluations of the place of music and sound in documentary films outside the European-American milieu. On the whole, the authors illuminate how the invention of documentary film was at first a product of the colonialist project. Yet over time, access to filmmaking technologies led to the creation of documentary films relevant for local communities and national identities. In this sense, documentary film in the Global South might be broadly defined as a mode of personally or politically mediated storytelling that, by one route or another, has become a useful and recognizable means of memorializing traumatic histories and critiquing everyday lived experience. As the essays in this volume attest, close readings of documentary soundscapes provide fresh perspectives on ways of hearing and ways of being heard in the Global South.
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://rowman.com/ISBN/9781666902969/Music-Sound-and-Documentary-Film-in-the-Global-South
Access Model: Purchase only
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Book Title: Music, Sound, and Documentary Film in the Global South
ISBN: 978-1-66690-29

COVID-19 and documentary linguistics: Some ways forward (Article)
Title: COVID-19 and documentary linguistics: Some ways forward
Author: Jeff Good
Author: Nicholas Williams
Author: W. D. L. Silva
Author: Laura McPherson
Abstract: In the wake of widespread and ongoing travel restrictions that began in early 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many documentary linguists worldwide shifted to remote work methods in order to continue or, in some cases, begin new projects. This pandemic situation has prompted questions about both methodological and ethical considerations in doing remote fieldwork. In this paper, we discuss the pros and cons of working remotely and discuss ways of working remotely based on our experiences working on projects in West Africa, northwest Amazonia, and Indonesia. We argue that elements of remote fieldwork should become a permanent part of linguistic fieldwork, but that such methods need to be considered in the context of decolonizing language documentation and centering the community’s needs and interests.
Year: 2021
Primary URL: http://lddjournal.org/articles/10.25894/ldd57
Access Model: Subscription only
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Language Documentation and Description
Publisher: University of Virginia Library, College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and Program in Linguistics

Preliminary Documentation of Leukon Language (Database/Archive/Digital Edition)
Title: Preliminary Documentation of Leukon Language
Author: Tasnim Williams
Author: Nicholas Williams
Abstract: This project focuses on initial documentation of Leukon, an endangered language of Simeulue island, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Leukon is spoken in just two villages on Simeulue island and is increasingly threatened due to rapid development and increased reliance on Indonesian and the local lingua franca, Aneuk Jamee. There is almost no prior literature on Leukon, and very little on the neighboring (likely related) languages, Sigulai, Devayan, Haloban, and Nias. This project will produce audiovisual documentation of Leukon, focusing on traditional work as a culturally important part of their indigenous knowledge.
Year: 2019
Primary URL: http://www.elararchive.org/dk0606/
Access Model: Open access

Under the Canopy of Development Aid: Illegal Logging and the Shadow State (Article)
Title: Under the Canopy of Development Aid: Illegal Logging and the Shadow State
Author: Courtney Work
Abstract: The term ‘Shadow State' refers to illicit extraction and patrimonial resource grabs. This paper documents the history of Cambodia's Shadow State and its interlocutors in the timber trade, drawing connections to contemporary timber extraction involving syndicated logging, government officials, and USAID. We use this to discuss three interrelated things: How infrastructures for Shadow State extraction morph with policy changes and persist through time. How climate change politics connect a long history of violent resource extraction, and how the ‘shadow’ state is knowingly hidden within the modern state. The implications of our findings for social and environmental justice cannot be ignored.
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03066150.2022.2103794
Access Model: Open access
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Journal of Peasant Studies
Publisher: Taylor & Francis

The Dance of Life and Death: Social relationships with elemental power (Book Section)
Title: The Dance of Life and Death: Social relationships with elemental power
Author: Courtney Work
Editor: Holly High
Abstract: Stones and stone masters are an important focus of animist religious practice in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on animism see animist rituals not as a mere metaphor for community or shared values, but as a way of forming and maintaining relationships with occult presences. This book features city pillars, statues, megaliths, termite mounds, mountains, rocks found in forests, and stones that have been moved to shrines, as well as the territorial cults which can form around them. The contributors extend and deepen the recent literature on animism to form a new analytical perspective on these cults across mainland Southeast Asia. Not just a collection of exemplary ethnographies, Stone Masters is also a deeply comparative volume that develops its ideas through a meshwork of regional entanglements, parallels, and differences, before entering into a dialogue with debates on power, mastery, and the social theory of animism globally.
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/S/bo156866489.html
Access Model: Purchase only
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Book Title: Stone Masters: Territory cults of Southeast Asia
ISBN: 9789813251700

Stones of Spirits and Kings: Negotiating Land Grabs in Contemporary Cambodia (Book Section)
Title: Stones of Spirits and Kings: Negotiating Land Grabs in Contemporary Cambodia
Author: Courtney Work
Editor: Erik W. Davis
Editor: Jason A. Carbine
Abstract: Human-fashioned boundaries transform spaces by introducing dualisms, bifurcations, creative symbioses, contradictions, and notions of inclusion and exclusion. The Buddhist boundaries considered in this book, sīmās—a term found in South and Southeast Asian languages and later translated into East Asian languages—come in various shapes and sizes and can be established on land or in bodies of water. Sometimes, the word sīmā refers not only to a ceremonial boundary, but the space enclosed by the boundary, or even the markers (when they are used) that denote the boundary. Sīmās were established early on as places where core legal acts (kamma), including ordination, of the monastic community (sangha) took place according to their disciplinary codes. Sīmās continue to be deployed in the creation of monastic lineages and to function in diverse ways for monastics and non-monastics alike. As foundations of Buddhist religion, sīmās are used to sustain, revitalize, or reform Buddhist practices, notions of identity, and conceptualizations of time and history. In the last few decades, scholarly awareness of and expertise on sīmās has developed to a point where a volume like this one, which examines sīmās across numerous cultural contexts and scholarly fields of inquiry, is both possible and needed. Sīmā traditions expressed in the Theravāda cultures of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka constitute the dominant focus of the work; a chapter on East Asia raises questions of historical transmission beyond these areas. Throughout contributors engage texts; history; archaeology; politics; art; ecology; economics; epigraphy; legal categories; mythic narratives; understandings of the cosmos; and conceptualizations of compassion, authority, and violence.
Year: 2022
Primary URL: http://uhpress.hawaii.edu/title/simas-foundations-of-buddhist-religion/
Access Model: Purchase only
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Book Title: Sima Boundaries in Buddhist Southeast Asia
ISBN: 9780824891077


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